Why 8-Bits? Understanding the Basics of Computer Architecture

Aditya Mali
2 min readApr 29, 2023


Computer architecture refers to the basic design and organization of a computer’s hardware components. One important aspect of computer architecture is the number of bits used to represent data. But why do computers use 8 bits? Let’s explore the history and benefits of 8-bit architecture.

History of 8-Bit Architecture

The first computers were built in the 1940s and 1950s and used vacuum tubes and other bulky components. These early computers used binary code, which consists of only two digits, 0 and 1, to represent data. At that time, computers used a word size of 6 or 7 bits, which limited the amount of data they could process.

In the early 1960s, computer engineers developed a new architecture based on an 8-bit word size. This allowed computers to process more data and perform more complex calculations. The first commercially successful computer to use 8-bit architecture was the Intel 8008, which was introduced in 1972.

Benefits of 8-Bit Architecture

There are several benefits to using 8-bit architecture in computers:

  1. Greater Storage Capacity: Using 8 bits instead of 6 or 7 bits allows for more data to be stored and processed. This is because 8 bits can represent 256 different values, while 6 bits can only represent 64 different values.
  2. Improved Processing Speed: With more bits, computers can perform more complex calculations faster. This is because more bits allow for more efficient use of memory and processing power.
  3. Backward Compatibility: Many early computer programs and systems were designed for 8-bit architecture. By continuing to use 8-bit architecture, modern computers can still run these legacy programs.
  4. Cost-Effective: 8-bit architecture is relatively simple and inexpensive compared to newer architectures like 16-bit or 32-bit. This makes it a cost-effective solution for many applications.


In summary, 8-bit architecture has been a fundamental part of computer design since the 1960s. It offers several benefits, including greater storage capacity, improved processing speed, backward compatibility, and cost-effectiveness. While newer architectures like 16-bit and 32-bit have emerged, 8-bit architecture remains an important part of the history and future of computing.